What are mesenchymal cells and how does mesenchymal stem cell therapy aid cancer patients or those with serious bone and muscle injuries? This article will be discussing that question by explaining how these cells work.
7 Things You Need To Know About Mesenchymal Stem Cells
What are Mesenchymal Stem Cells?
Mesenchymal stem cells belong to the adult stem cell family. Under this category, experts consider mesenchymal cells as multipotent and capable of self-renewal. Mesenchymal cells have the ability to activate their genes and evolve into discrete cell types such as myocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts.
What can Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into?
Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into myocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts.
- Myocytes, also known as muscle cells, develop into muscles through the process called myogenesis. Other comprehensive structures of myocytes are skeletal and cardiac cells.
- Adipocytes, otherwise known as fat cells, are responsible for the formation of adipose tissues. Adipose tissues are responsible for accumulating energy as fat.
- Chondrocytes make up the sturdy elastic tissues found in the cartilage mostly found in the joints, rib cage, and bronchial tubes. They smooth the way for the fluid interchange through the layers. Additionally, these cell types can evolve into osteoblasts.
- Osteoblasts are cells that develop into bones. These cells construct a matrix that converts into a mineral substance. Osteoblasts are also responsible for monitoring the calcium and mineral buildup.
How are Mesenchymal Stem Cells Harvested?
Mesenchymal stem cells are obtained through the harvesting process. The main areas wherein they get samples are from the bone marrow, fat tissue, and umbilical cord. The extraction process involves a specialized syringe and machine to check the quality of the cells.
How Do Mesenchymal Stem Cells Work?
Mesenchymal stem cells are used for stem cell transplant procedure. Cancer patients and those who suffer leukemia consider this as an alternative treatment. During the transplant process, the patient’s body will be exposed to radiation. This is to prevent the further spread of mutilated cells and prepares the body to be more susceptible to the injected stem cells. Stem cells within the patient’s body system will now regenerate to healthier cells.
What are Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells?
Autologous mesenchymal stem cells are harvested from the individual’s own stem cells. Prior to transplant conditioning, these stem cells are frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for preservation. In most cases of chemotherapy, while it does successfully eliminate cancer cells, it also damages active cells of the bone marrow. Hence, doctors will put your own stem cells back to your system to help your body recover.
What are Allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells?
Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells are congregated from donors. There will be stem cell transplant preparations for both the patient and the donor. Both bodies will be conditioned and several tests will be rolled out. To check if the stem cells are admissible for the patient, doctors refer to the compatibility of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) test results. In addition, it is important to get a close match between the two parties to avoid the graft-versus-host disease. This complication happens when the patient’s body identifies the stem cells as foreign bodies and rejects.
Why Use Mesenchymal Stem Cells?
Due to their regenerative properties and ability to differentiate, mesenchymal stem cells are used for transplant procedures. These are capable of producing new and robust cells to replace the deteriorating ones. They prove to be beneficial especially to patients who are suffering from cancer and tissue injuries. Mesenchymal stem cell reviews are being studied further to improve the process.
To learn more about mesenchymal stem cells, watch this overview video of BrandonReed2929:
Mesenchymal stem cells are essential in transplant procedures. These stem cells aim to be of aid to serious diseases and injuries. To fully understand their function, it is best to talk to your trusted doctor.
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